Annotated Bibliography

Our annotated bibliography provided an opportunity to gain knowledge with and from our peers. It was a great chance to gather resources that expand our understanding of integrating technology into classroom practices and the pedagogical impacts. Together we came up with ten different articles that explored diverse topics in education technology.

Our Articles

 Garzón, J., Kinshuk, Baldiris, S., Gutiérrez, J., & Pavón, J. (2020). How do pedagogical approaches affect the impact of augmented reality on education? A meta-analysis and research synthesis. Educational Research Review, 31. Retrieved on November 9, 2020.

This is a study that looks at constructivist learning theory and the way it influences AR in education. It broke constructivism down to three main categories and then looked at the learning approaches commonly associated with AR interventions in the classroom. This Study demonstrated positive student outcomes with a constructivist approach to AR intervention, but it failed to look at any other types of pedagogical perspectives. 

Smith, T. (2019). How Tech Tools Are Redefining Literacy to Prepare Students for    Career and College. Tech & Learning, 6, 14. Retrieved on November 10,2020.

This article discusses literacy and how it has evolved in society as technology has changed. It looks at the ways in which technology has interconnected various aspects of life creating a need for students to learn new ways to communicate. Some of the areas addressed in this article included using technology in reading, the evolution of digital citizenship, using technology to create and connect with community and communication and the need for social emotional learning. This article demonstrated ways in which technology can play a positive role in the lives of students.

Herold, B. (2018). Ed-Tech Companies Tracking Students’ Emotions, Mindsets: A push to use new technology to understand the “whole child” is sparking privacy fears. Education Week, 37(35), 1. Retrieved from

This article looks at personalized learning in a whole different manner than just customizing instruction. It explores the idea of teaching the “whole child” by using technology to track the students’ emotions and engagement. Some ways to track the emotions are by logging keystrokes and clicks. Other researchers have expanded to including facial recognition, eye tracking, wearable devices and virtual reality to get a more distinct understanding of learners’ emotions. This is a controversial topic and proponents on both sides have strong feelings about the idea.

Connolly, T. & Stansfield, M. (2006). Using Games-Based eLearning Technologies In Overcoming Difficulties in Teaching Information Systems. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 5(1), 459-476. Informing Science Institute. Retrieved November 15, 2020 from

The authors identify and discuss three generations of eLearning. – first, the passive use of the Internet,  second, using more advanced technologies such as eAssessment and Virtual Learning Environments and currently building more collaborative learning environments based on areas such as reflective practice through tools like ePortfolios, blogs, wikis and interactive technologies such as games, simulations and mLearning technologies. The authors build on theories such as motivation, constructivism, situated learning and problem-based learning as they discuss how these applications are applied to MSc students and the skills that they learn as a result of using these technologies. 

Jan L. Plass, Bruce D. Homer & Charles K. Kinzer (2015) Foundations of Game-Based Learning, Educational Psychologist, 50:4, 258-283, DOI: 10.1080/00461520.2015.1122533

In this article, the authors discuss theoretical models that describe learning with games. They review design elements of games that facilitate learning by fostering learners’ cognitive, behavioral, affective, and sociocultural engagement with the subject matter. Lastly, they discuss the basis of these design elements in cognitive, motivational, affective, and sociocultural foundations by reviewing key theories from education and psychology that are the most pertinent to game-based learning and by describing empirical research on learning with games that has been or should be conducted. They conclude that a combination of perspectives is necessary to fully capture how games can inform learning.

 William Rayens & Amanda Ellis (2018) Creating a Student-Centered Learning Environment Online, Journal of Statistics Education, 26:2, 92-102, DOI: 10.1080/10691898.2018.1475205

This article is not a controlled study.  Rather it is an anthology of examples and reflection after a group of instructors created a face-to-face, student-centered, general education classroom at the University of Kentucky, and then created a similar environment online. 

Al Shuaily, E. M. Lacap, J. F. Ramos and G. A. dela Cruz, “Towards facilitating student’s learning and engagement in an online pedagogy: A search for a personalized online learning framework for a technology-enhanced learning,” 2018 Majan International Conference (MIC), Muscat, 2018, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/MINTC.2018.8363151.

Extending classroom contact hours is a primordial concern at the Higher College of Technology, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman. This paper examines the student’s learning and engagement in deploying an online course in Basic Mathematics. Results showed significant increase in student’s engagement before, during and after classroom contact hours. This increment however did not significantly translate to a growth in student learning as measured by their final course mark. The implications of this study as they show the challenge in delivering a technology-enabled learning environment while trying to bridge the gap between economy-triggered incapacities while educating citizens to the highest standards.

Melo, M., Bentley, E., McAllister, K., & Cortez, J. (2019). Pedagogy of Productive Failure: Navigating the Challenges of Integrating VR into the Classroom. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 12(1), 1-19. doi:

This article summarizes a case study centered on virtual reality (VR) in educational settings with a focus on the major issues found to be problematic for educators during the implementation process.Through the integration of the of VR into instructional practices, instructors found that they often felt like they were working in circles and making no progress. Through their struggles, and the feedback within the process they were able to identify that they needed to strengthen their own skills and take a different pedagogical approach.. Implementation challenges included: cost, “simulation sickness”, and the complexity of VR.  

Pane, John F., Elizabeth D. Steiner, Matthew D. Baird, and Laura S. Hamilton, Continued Progress: Promising Evidence on Personalized Learning. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2015.

This article talks about personalized learning and how it operates in a classroom setting. The major components listed are: learner profiles, personal learning paths, competency-based progression, and flexible learning environments. The fundamentals of personalized learning is that instead of prioritizing test scores, grades, being on par with their grade level peers, this type of instruction prioritizes students learning to learn and absorbing information in a way that works best for them. The researchers focus on aspects such as types of schools, types of testing, the implementation process, and the challenges that presented itself with personalized learning.

Cramer, M., Hirano, S., Tentori, M., Yeganyan, M., & Hayes, G. (2011, March).     Classroom-Based Assistive Technology: Collective Use of Interactive Visual Schedules by Students with Autism. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from

The research presented in this article focuses on assistive technology for students with autism, specifically vSked. The technology, vSked, is an individual device that is a visual support for aspects of classroom life such as schedules, choice boards, and reward systems. It is used as an alternative to visual cues that could be misplaced or damaged. The goal was to create a technology that could be used for the entire classroom, but would specifically help students with autism with prompting and independence. The challenges researchers discovered is that vSked were not as flexible as a paper visual in some cases.

Personal Reflection

The three articles I added the annotated bibliography were: How do pedagogical approaches affect the impact of augmented reality on education? A meta-analysis and research synthesis, How Tech Tools Are Redefining Literacy to Prepare Students for Career and College, and Ed-Tech Companies Tracking Students’ Emotions, Mindsets: A push to use new technology to understand the “whole child” is sparking privacy fears.

The first one I selected for several reasons. I was first intrigued because it talks about Augmented Realty (AR) which I am fascinated with. Aside from that though is that it talked about pedagogy which has been an important topic in several of my ONID classes so I felt it was important to include this study. Morgan  pointed out the significance of constructivist learning theory in many approaches of collaborative learning, so this really ties nicely into what is happening in education, not just in a technology realm but also in a instructional methodology as well. 

The article Ed-Tech Companies Tracking Students’ Emotions, Mindsets: A push to use new technology to understand the “whole child” is sparking privacy fears. I selected because personalized learning is a topic that I have heard a lot in the last few years and this takes it to the next level by using technology to monitor students’ moods and emotions. It also brought up the important topic of privacy and what is too much info. This ties into other topics I have learned about in previous classes. I find it interesting how all these topics seem to be come back to each other and link together. With each new innovation, we have an increased risk of exposing student information. It makes me wonder where do we draw the line on what is private. I would hope that a good teacher doesn’t need technology to tell them when a student is engaged or struggling. That comes from building relationships and building a community within a classroom.

I really enjoyed the article Pedagogy of Productive Failure: Navigating the Challenges of Integrating VR into the Classroom. One of the reasons I really liked this was because it reminded me that nothing is easy when you start. We can’t expect that when using new technology it is going to work the first time. It takes time to learn how to implement it in a manner that makes it productive with in the classroom. It is ok to fail the first time. It doesn’t mean the technology isn’t useful. In the same respect I believe that it is important to recognize that not all new technology isn’t necessarily great just because it is new either. I think it is important to remember to look at what the technology is asking students to do and learn. This helps us decide if we should dedicate the time to learn how to use it with our students. 

One thing that came up, in our discussion was the idea of effect size. This is not something I fully grasp. I sort of understand it when I am ready it, but if I have to explain it, I can’t. This same sentiment was expressed by another. I think that this might be something that would be nice to be discussed in one of the intro to research classes. I took two of them, but I don’t feel like this was ever touched on. I would like to understand how to interpret this better.


I really liked that I had the opportunity to explore articles Catherine and Morgan found. They found information that I wouldn’t have found, which provided me more information that I can add to my own collection of research.We also had a chance to have discussion within the context of the document to share, edit and provide feedback.  I believe that this is a great example of how our learning network can help support us in our professional growth and development. 

5 thoughts on “Annotated Bibliography”

  1. Melissa, you included the entire bibliography here! Kudos – I am glad that you chose to highlight it so significantly. This is not an option I emphasize, but it is a good way to keep track of the content that you co-created.

    I appreciate your more in-depth reflection not just about each article but about your reasoning in choosing it, as well as lingering qualms you still have. You’re asking the right questions. I particularly agree with you on the issue of emotional detection. If an AI becomes better than us at that… well, I hope that never occurs.

    1. That is still eating at me. that would take away a major component of teaching. Many students need that human interaction and I worry what would happen if we start to neglect that emotional aspect.

  2. Melissa,

    I really enjoyed your articles and also appreciated that you got us started on this assignment. I agree that the privacy issue is going to be tricky even though we have regulations like COPPA and FERPA to guide our thinking. I suspect that given the economic challenges that Gupta shared in one of our earlier modules that there is definitely a feeling of “caveat emptor”. Perhaps school districts need to integrate this role into the Chief Technology Officer function, should one even exist!

    In fact, your discussion made me want to see what other policies might be out there to guide our thinking, and found this one which I’ve downloaded for future use.

    I’m also trying to figure out how I better share my technology expectations with my college students, as we read about in the chapters by Pacansky-Brock.

  3. I especially enjoyed the “whole child” sparking privacy fears article and the VR article as well. Much like the VR article, It would be interesting in hearing the struggles and challenges of implementing the social emotional technology in the classroom. I was talking with a teacher who is in the classroom about that article and we were talking about one point you made – that we would hope teachers would be able to have relationships with students to be able to tell when a student is struggling. We also talked about the legality of that type of technology. We have students who’s parents won’t sign media releases, so I wonder what type of contract or release form would have to be in place.

    1. I have several parents who won’t sign media releases, but sign permission for me to use their students image in context of the classroom and the school website. Sometimes I wonder if it is about understanding the details. I think there would have to be some type of release. As a parent I’m not sure if I was sign on.

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